I just realized if Shakespeare came back to life he would love tumblr because he would just find posts where people are groaning from the source and be just shout "HELL YEAH PUNS!" Let's face it he would only reblog puns and sexual images.
I completely agree
He’d probably reblog other people’s story ideas, too, though, and make plays out of them. And he’d troll the ‘Shakespeare’ tag and not let anyone know it was him!
My biology text describing Ulva, a multicellular green algae:
“Often pieces are broken and washed onto the shore whiter they lie limp as a wet facial tissue, rapidly loosing their chlorophyll pigments as they dry.”
So, Ulva = snot-filled tissues
Isn’t nature beautiful.
Optimal museum strategy:
Explore the exhibits, as per usual, but keep your ears open for people who know what they’re talking about. Listen in; you’ll learn so much more. (And if they’re really nice, they may even show you around and answer your questions!)
This is something I've never seen ANYONE tackle as a question, and I'd love your best answer. Why are some reptiles on a temperature determined sex differentiation system, and others on a chromosomal one? Any idea on how that came about?
Answering ‘why’ questions in evolutionary biology (and biology as a whole) is extremely difficult. Who knows? is the honest answer for the vast majority of questions; speculation - informed speculation - is often the best we can do.
Typically, chromosomal or genetic sex determination (GSD) results in a ~1:1 ratio of male to female offspring. This can be advantageous when the temperature of incubation does not differentially influence the fitness of sexes; that is to say, if males and females are both equally aided or abetted by temperature differences during incubation.
However, where temperature has differential influence on the fitness of individuals of different sexes, an environmental sex determination (ESD) system should be evolutionarily favourable; if males have superior fitness to females at low temperature, then selection will favour males over females at these temperatures, and it is easy to imagine the evolutionary potential of that relationship. This mechanism is called the ‘Charnov-Bull’ model.
The dynamics of the Charnov-Bull model might differ between lineages; for instance in some cases, hot and cold temperatures might favour one sex, while intermediate temperatures favour the other; a parabolic relationship between sex and temperature might then exist[2,3].
The Charnov-Bull model was empirically shown to be true of Amphibolurus muricatus, a short-lived agamid lizard, by Warner and Shine in 2008. In their experiment, they exposed eggs to different temperatures, while manipulating the sex of the lizards directly by hormone injection, and were thus able to demonstrate differential fitness effects on sexes at different temperatures.
It has been suggested that reptiles are particularly prone to transitioning from GSD to ESD, because their incubation environment is so variable[4,5], which might explain the prevalence of ESD in reptiles, relative to other vertebrates.
Differential fitness of sexes is not the only evolutionary explanation for the prevalence of ESD; a further three have been proposed: (1) ESD is ancestral and selectively almost neutral, and is thus perpetuated; (2) ESD promotes group fitness by permitting adaptive control of sex ratio; and (3) ESD permits inbreeding avoidance by producing single-sex clutches. These, however, have little empirical support, and are probably less important than Charnov-Bull dynamics.
A whole lot more research is needed in this field, because the real answer to your second question is no, not really. Nobody really knows, but a lot of people are speculating. And that is intriguing. Novel approaches provide great potential for future research, and perhaps we may be able to answer the why and and the hows. But for now, real answers just don’t exist.
Charnov, E.L. & J. Bull (1977) When is sex environmentally determined? Nature, 266(5605):828-830 [Read here]
Warner, D.A. & R. Shine (2008) The adaptive significance of temperature-dependent sex determination in a reptile. Nature, 451:566-569
Janzen, F.J. & P.C. Philips (2006) Exploring the evolution of environmental sex determination, especially in reptiles. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 19:1775-1784
Georges, A., T. Ezaz, A.E. Quinn & S.D. Sarre (2010) Are reptiles predisposed to temperature-dependent sex determination? Sexual Development, 4:7-15 [Read here]
Sarre, S.D., T. Ezaz & A. Georges (2011) Transitions between sex-determining systems in reptiles and amphibians. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, 12_391-406
Does it count as a rare “lesbian superclutch” if neither clutch of eggs were fertilized? Just two females going at it and then laying more eggs, in total, than they knew what to do with? And surprising the hell out of their humans?
I need to make a giant flowchart but I’m concerned that if I do it on Word,it will eventually crash. I tried messing around on google docs, but it ended up being laborious and inconvenient (maybe I was doing it wrong, I don’t know).
Does anyone have any suggestions?
Chill out, hydrogen chloride: You’re on the acidic side, You can turn blue litmus paper red, So it’s said; With base, you can neutralise, Water makes you ionise ’Cos you lose a hydrogen ion And you become Cl- and H3O+ Your pH is low, ‘cos in H2O You deprotonate -…
"the cattle graze in the peaceful field, the water kisses the shore outside our humble home, the fish eat my furniture, I tape melmac plates to my forehead, my wife’s biscuits edge closer, winged tubbies frolic near the power steering. the house glows with almost no help, half my field of vision…
"Umm, how can you be ‘semiaquatic’, you either are aquatic or you’re not. Don’t be greedy."
"So, I get that you’re a monotreme and everything, but do you identify more as a rodent or a bird?"
"Ugh, why do you have to be such a special snowflake. Do you and like three other species need an entire order to describe yourselves that separates you from mammals that birth live young?"
"You needlessly complicate an artificially constructed system of classification. Why don’t you just lose the webbed feet and beak and egg laying ways and become a proper mammal."
"Ha! You may look like you belong to class Aves, but I know for a fact that birds don’t have fur. You’re such a phony."
"Why do you insist on appropriating beaks and webbed feet. Like, you admitted you weren’t a bird, stop incorporating them into your anatomy. All you’re doing is making birds look less legitimate as an order."